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Thursday, April 3, 2008

Assigment IT


Technology is a broad concept that deals with a species usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. In human society, it is a consequence of science and engineering, although several technological advances predate the two concepts. Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as polution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms. Some technology like wireless sensor network has become interesting part for our life. And that technology is our assignment for this course.


Wireless sensor network
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature,sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations. The development of wireless sensor networks was originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas. In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is typically equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. The envisaged size of a single sensor node can vary from shoebox-sized nodes down to devices the size of grain of dust, although functioning 'motes' of genuine microscopic dimensions have yet to be created. The cost of sensor nodes is similarly variable, ranging from hundreds of dollars to a few cents, depending on the size of the sensor network and the complexity required of individual sensor nodes. Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and bandwidth.

A sensor network normally constitutes a wirelessad-hoc network,meaning that each sensor supports a multi-hop routing algorithm (several nodes may forward data packets to the base station).

In computer science and telecommunications, wireless sensor networks are an active research area with numerous workshops and conferences arranged each year.


The applications for WSNs are many and varied. They are used in commercial and industrial applications to monitor data that would be difficult or expensive to monitor using wired sensors. They could be deployed in wilderness areas, where they would remain for many years (monitoring some environmental variables) without the need to recharge/replace their power supplies. They could form a perimeter about a property and monitor the progression of intruders (passing information from one node to the next). There are many uses for WSNs.

Typical applications of WSNs include monitoring, tracking, and controlling. Some of the specific applications are habitat monitoring, object tracking, nuclear reactor controlling, fire detection, traffic monitoring, etc. In a typical application, a WSN is scattered in a region where it is meant to collect data through its sensor nodes. Another class of application is the so-called smart space.

Area monitoring

Area monitoring is a typical application of WSNs. In area monitoring, the WSN is deployed over a region where some phenomenon is to be monitored. As an example, a large quantity of sensor nodes could be deployed over a battlefield to detect enemy intrusion instead of using landmines. When the sensors detect the event being monitored (heat, pressure, sound, light, electro-magnetic field, vibration, etc), the event needs to be reported to one of the base stations, which can take appropriate action (e.g., send a message on the internet or to a satellite). Depending on the exact application, different objective functions will require different data-propagation strategies, depending on things such as need for real-time response, redundancy of the data (which can be tackled via data aggregation techniques), need for security, etc.


Operating systems

Operating systems for wireless sensor network nodes are typically less complex than general-purpose operating systems both because of the special requirements of sensor network applications and because of the resource constraints in sensor network hardware platforms. For example, sensor network applications are usually not interactive in the same way as applications for PCs. Because of this, the operating system does not need to include support for user interfaces. Furthermore, the resource constraints in terms of memory and memory mapping hardware support make mechanisms such as virtual memory either unnecessary or impossible to implement.Wireless sensor network hardware is not different from traditional embedded systems and it is therefore possible to use embedded operating systems such as eCoS or UC/OS for sensor networks. However, such operating systems are often designed with real-time properties. Unlike traditional embedded operating systems, however, operating systems specifically targeting sensor networks often do not have real-time support.Tiny OS is perhaps the first operating system specifically designed for wireless sensor networks. Unlike most other operating systems, TinyOS is based on an event-driven proggramming model instead of multitreading. TinyOS programs are composed into event handlers and tasks with run to completion-semantics. When an external event occurs, such as an incoming data packet or a sensor reading, TinyOS calls the appropriate event handler to handle the event. Event handlers can post tasks that are scheduled by the TinyOS kernel some time later. Both the TinyOS system and programs written for TinyOS are written in a special programming language called nesC which is an extension to the C programming language NesC is designed to detect race condition between tasks and event handlers.There are also operating systems that allow programming in C. Examples of such operating systems include Contiki, MANTIS, BTnut, SOS and Nano-RK. Contiki is designed to support loading modules over the network and supports run-time loading of standard ELF files. The Contiki kernel is event-driven, like TinyOS, but the system supports multithreading on a per-application basis. Furthermore, Contiki includes protothead that provide a thread-like programming abstraction but with a very small memory overhead. Unlike the event-driven Contiki kernel, the MANTIS and Nano-RK kernels are based on preemptive multithreading. With preemptive multithreading, applications do not need to explicitly yield the microprocessor to other processes. Instead, the kernel divides the time between the active processes and decides which process that currently can be run which makes application programming easier. Nano-RK is a real-time resource kernel that allows fine grained control of the way tasks get access to CPU time, networking and sensors. Like TinyOS and Contiki, SOS is an event-driven operating system. The prime feature of SOS is its support for loadable modules. A complete system is built from smaller modules, possibly at run-time. To support the inherent dynamism in its module interface, SOS also focuses on support for dynamic memory management. BTnuts is based on cooperative multi-threading and plain C code, and is packaged with a developer kit and tutorial



Unique characteristics of a WSN include:

  • Limited power they can harvest or store
  • Ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions
  • Ability to cope with node failures
  • Mobility of nodes
  • Dynamic network topology
  • Communication failures
  • Heterogeneity of nodes
  • Large scale of deployment


A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensor to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such astemperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations. The applications for WSNs are many and varied. They are used in commercial and industrial applications to monitor data that would be difficult or expensive to monitor using wired sensors. Typical applications of WSNs include monitoring, tracking, and controlling. From now this technology has become part of our life.


Thanks to my beloved lecturer, Puan Noormaizatul Akmar Ishak and En.Zukimee b. Mat Junoh, my friends, boys of metallurgy, boys from kkf, to all our families. Thank you so much because from your critics, from your experience has become our assignment is the best that we had done. To all my friends that have given us the support, lend the computer to us to finish our assignment, thanks to you all. From this assignment had open our eyes to the technology that have nowadays. We realized that technology has become part of our life. From this course this subject we know more about technology that we appreciate to our lecturer so much that teach us. Thank to everybody that involve to help our assignment become better and better.

Tuesday, April 1, 2008

ICT Solutions For Car Manufacturer

New ICT solutions for car manufacturers

Accompanying cars through the entire lifecycle and optimizing production
T-Systems supports car manufacturers, suppliers and dealers with product lifecycle management (PLM) solutions, which electronically accompany the car from the initial idea to servicing. The ICT service provider will demonstrate this at CeBIT using the example of typical design and construction processes. At an interactive exhibit, visitors will learn more about the areas of construction, suppliers, manufacturers (OEMs) and customer service. Glass panes equipped with sensor displays will be set up around a car at the booth. Using a handheld device, visitors will be able to scan car components via RFID points installed on the glass pane. The monitors will then display the information on that particular component. In addition, trade fair visitors will learn about the new electronic possibilities that currently exist when it comes to car equipment. These range from security to consumer electronics, such as live TV in the car. Guests will experience how cars communicate with each other and how they can automatically establish wireless connections to the customer service department,

ICT in Cars Manufacturing

A recent workshop in Geneva - The Fully Networked Car, A Workshop on ICT in Vehicles - looked at the synergy between the worlds of information and communications technologies (ICT) and vehicles.

A key focus of the event was standardization that will aid the development of an array of exciting new technologies, mostly aimed at improving road safety. One session concentrated in particular on the way that collaboration between all stakeholders - suppliers of communications, vehicles, infrastructure and applications/services, standards developers - will impact this technology.

Until recently there has been no concerted effort to bring the two industries together to forge standards for this new generation of technologies aiming to facilitate the ‘fully networked car’.

The kind of applications that we can expect from the fully networked car include; the ability of a car to dial the emergency services automatically in a crash or other emergency situation (known as eCall), communications to warn of dangerous situations and remote diagnostics if your car breaks down.

Telematics – the use of computers to control or monitor remote devices or systems using telecommunications or wireless technologies - is combined with the term intelligent transportation systems (ITS) to form the term most often used to describe these technologies – ITS Telematics.

Many key players now believe that without standards the market for ITS Telematics will not take-off.

The ICT sector has seen great successes in terms of standardization. If it wasn’t for standards in telecommunications it would be impossible to call from country to country or even network to network. Ensuring that equipment works together and that service providers can avoid being locked-in to one supplier are key concerns for telecoms providers. Standards have succeeded in ramping up levels of interoperability in telecoms networks enabling a raft of innovative services, while allowing service providers to implement best-of-breed solutions, keeping costs down and customers happy. And ITU-T as well as being the key architect of the world’s telecommunication networks has been behind many recent initiatives to bring other standards makers together to avoid duplicating effort.

In the car world hundreds of standards focus on areas as diverse as tyre pressure and impact testing, to the human machine interfaces (HMI) that control various car functions. ISO Technical Committee 22 (TC22) creates international standards for all in-vehicle aspects of road vehicles. ISO Technical Committee 204 (TC204) creates international standards for when a vehicle interacts with infrastructure or other vehicles. The car industry has seen various initiatives to harmonize global standards in the past including the bi-annual Global Automotive Standards Summit. Additionally, the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations was established within the UN system to harmonize vehicle regulations.

Now, an initiative to facilitate better communications between the ICT and car manufacturing worlds has been created. The Advisory Panel for Standards Cooperation on Telecommunications related to Motor Vehicles (APSC TELEMOV) was formed following the first ITU workshop on this topic in 2003. The group brings together leading international standardization organizations to understand what is done in other standards bodies and to share information. These standards makers hail from all stakeholders in the telematics world; telecoms service providers, car manufacturers, telecoms equipment manufacturers, systems manufacturers and governments etc. In this way duplication of effort can be avoided and open issues in standardization can be identified easily.

Objectives of the Advisory Panel for Standards Cooperation on Telecommunications related to Motor Vehicles (APSC TELEMOV)

* The APSC is a cooperation group on all aspects of standardization related to telecommunications within and for motor vehicles.
* The APSC should strengthen the cooperation amongst the SDOs involved in the industry, improving information exchange between organizations and avoiding duplication of efforts.
* The APSC should identify open issues in standardization activities and stimulate cooperation on how and where to best address those open issues.
* The APSC should facilitate coordination, as far as possible, for the aspects involving responsible bodies within different organizations.
* The APSC shall focus on technical aspects taking into consideration, as far as possible, regulatory, economic, usability and sociologic issues.
* The APSC shall support activities to increase awareness and application of the existing standards.
* The APSC will not have the power of decision but may prepare proposals and on request provide advices for SDOs and relevant partners.

This type of activity is seen as fundamental. During his presentation, ITU, a potential partner for ICT in vehicles, at the Geneva workshop, Jean-Yves Monfort, ITU-T Study Group 12 Chairman noted that, deregulation and the rise of the Internet has led to 500 plus standards organizations operating in the ICT field. He says: “What we are seeing with the formation of APSC is a new spirit of collaboration between standards development organizations (SDOs). And hopefully what this will lead to is a more timely delivery of standards in order to better meet industry needs. I have a strong belief that this mutually supporting standards environment will lead to a world where seamless mobility and the connected vehicle are a reality.”

Bob Williams, Convenor of two working groups in ISO, and also chair of the ETSI ITS Task Group, echoed the sentiment saying that he believes that the use of common resources helps to ensure that interested parties are well informed about work in progress and coordinate the timely development of the various deliverables.

Richard Noens, Director Corporate Telematics Standards, Motorola, delivered a presentation at the workshop, Opportunities and Necessities for Standards in the Telematics Value Chain. Noens used to work on proprietary standards. He has now by his own admission realized the ‘error of his ways’.

“Standards are necessary because of increased complexity”, he said. “They are necessary if the market is to grow.” Additionally he believes that it is critical to focus on applications independent of what is beneath them, ‘pipe-independent applications’ that are developed regardless of what network architecture is used, Bluetooth, WLAN, UWB, WiMax, DSRC, cellular etc, and make them useful, low cost and high reliability. “There is no point in developing technology for technology’s sake”, he said.

All participants in the value chain have to benefit and to take part according to Noens. It is important to develop all the way through the ‘stack’ of OSI layers from the physical connection layer to the application layer he says, giving particular emphasis to the content providers, to whom he says barriers to entry should be lowered.

Standards Foundation

In ITU’s Radiocommunications sector, Question 51 (Q.51 – study areas are named Questions in ITU parlance) was created in 1982 and opened the door for standardization for navigation systems in cars. It looks at the automatic determination of location and guidance in the land mobile service. Q.205 looking at the interconnect between intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and land mobile communications has produced four Recommendations (ITU’s international standards) – defining objectives, requirements and functionalities for transport information and control systems. ITU-R M.1453 is a Recommendation developed under that Question, and defines specifications for wi-fi transmission from moving vehicles, and has been recently modified to take into account next generation IP (IPv6). Additionally current studies in the Radiocommunication sector include work on a handbook on ITS, analysis of new technologies (for ITS) software defined radio (SDR), adaptive antenna and ultra wide band (UWB) technologies.

Related work in the standardization sector of ITU includes studies on performance and QoS, multimedia terminals, systems and applications, ubiquitous applications (e-Everything), security and mobile telecoms. Specifically two study areas (Questions) are relevant looking at hands-free communications in vehicles and performance evaluation of services based on speech technology. There is also ongoing work in the standardization sector on protection against electromagnetic environmental effects – looking at methodologies to predict and mitigate electromagnetic compatibility problems that may prevent the complex variety of both wireless and wireline technologies from working successfully together.

The workshop also identified other areas where it is expected ITU can provide solutions including HMI, integrating car communications as part of ITU-T’s ongoing study of next generation networks (NGN) and exploiting the relationship between the home networking environment and in-car technology.

In ISO a substantial amount of work has been done in the ITS Telematics arena. Technical Committee 204 (TC204) - Intelligent Transport Systems - consists of 16 working groups that among other things, provide support tools to assist standards development and implementation, examine systems architecture, navigation systems, electronic fee collection, warning systems, collision avoidance, traveller information, and interaction between Traffic Management Centres, Its current work programme includes continuous communications between vehicles and the infrastructure and between vehicles.

Different Backgrounds – Same Objectives

The car industry and the ICT industry are different in many ways. The average life cycle of a mobile phone is just a couple of years compared to a car, which might stay on the road for ten or more years. Profit margins and therefore business models are complex and historically the foundation of the two industries is different. But both service two very integral parts of modern life, transportation and communication. Bridging this gap may take some effort, but the benefits in terms of safety and business generation will be great.

In order to create the technology and facilitate the cooperation necessary for an open market in telematics that will allow services using the same multi-bearer delivery infrastructure and in-vehicle terminals, collaboration at an international level is imperative. This behind-the scenes effort advances the industry, and demonstrates that arbitration and intermediation between standards groups is possible and avoids duplicity and counterproductive effort.

This article first appeared in the May 2005 issue of ISO Focus - The Magazine of the International Organization for Standardization ( )and is reproduced here with the permission of ISO Central Secretariat ( Editorial enquiries: A one-year subscription costs 158 Swiss francs. Subscription enquiries:

Car Safety

Passive safety" redirects here. For nuclear safety, see Passive nuclear safety.

Automobile safety is the avoidance of automobile accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. Numerous safety features have been built into cars for years, some for the safety of car's occupants only, some for the safety of others.

Distance covered by vehicles in one second.
Distance covered by vehicles in one second.

As a result of improvements in highway and automobile design, the incidence of injuries and fatalities per mile driven has decreased significantly, but road traffic injuries still represent about 25% of worldwide injury-related deaths (the leading cause) with an estimated 1.2 million deaths (2004) each year - World Health Organization [1]).

Major factors in accidents include driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs; inattentive driving; crash compatibility between vehicles; driving while fatigued or unconscious; encounters with road hazards such as snow, potholes, and crossing animals; or reckless driving.

Car Designing

There are two aspects to designing a vehicle.The appearance of a vehicle, both exterior and interior and the engineering aspect.

The two can probably never be found in the same individual. As has been pointed out, 'There are two kinds of designers, one from NID with great conceptualising powers but limited technological knowhow, the other from IDC who is technically superior but creatively inept.'

According to NM Rupani, designer and owner of Land Escapes, "No car in India has been designed indigenously." For the most part, companies have in-house studios which employ teams that specialise and work in particular areas like only drawings, models and engineering. In contrast, Italian houses like BMW, Fiat and Ferrari work from the ground up -from conceptualising the design to arriving at the finished product.

When it comes to the Indian market, Dilip Chhabria, a redesigner of some repute, is of the opinion that "Telco is the only company that has a capacity to design a car in-house, though companies like Mahindra are also entering the scene." Mostly, though, the capacity is unutilised. With all the foreign collaborations and introductions of tried and tested models, most companies prefer to go in for a short cut to profits and not work on original ideas. Dilip Chhabria is known in Mumbai circles for his great designer cars. 50 cars to be precise, inclusive of the red sports car in Yash Chopra's 'Dil to pagal hai' and a Mahindra's car. Many of the celebrities get their cars done from him. With a degree from Art Centre, Pasadena, California, he is in this field due to his expertise in handcrafting.

The Indian automobile scene can be explained best by Rupani: "You can't reinvent the wheel, but most Indian designers actually start by reinventing it." Every Indian car manufacturer has in-house designers on payroll who, in reality, may not have the talent or even the basic knowledge of the car. There is a vast contrast between them and their foreign counterparts, for international designers enter the field because of their fierce love of cars and driving.

Rupani gives a classic example: "Ferrari was a racer who participated in races, using and breaking cars of other makes. Later he started making cars correcting faults he found in others."

According to him, in India it would seem that Telco is the only company with international vision. Tata is the only Indian company to have its two latest models 'Mint' and 'Safari' on display at the Geneva car show and to have met with success despite companies like Ferrari, BMW and Suzuki competing for the European segment.

While it would seem apparent that originality in the Indian market for automobile design is not at present as it should be, an emerging trend is redesigning. Redesigning vehicles is a whole new concept leaning towards what is called 'customising' or 'add-on'. "This is a whole new industry and is catching on."

Automobile designing, it could safely be said, is not for the faint-hearted. It's a delicate amalgamation of, as Rupani puts it, form and function. So if you feel racy, this is what you should be doing.